GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE MONITORING

Golden gate bridge sensor vibration materials overview

Golden Gate Bridge Accelerometers

https://www.goldengate.org/videos/accelerometers/

Instrumentation plan for 56 nodes on main span of the Golden Gate Bridge 

Fig. 6. Instrumentation plan for 56 nodes on main span of the Golden…Download scientific diagram | Instrumentation plan for 56 nodes on main span of the Golden Gate Bridge  from publication: Design and Implementation of Scalable Wireless Sensor Network for Structural Monitoring | An integrated hardware and software system for a scalable wireless sensor network WSN is designed and developed for structural health monitoring. An accelerometer sensor node is designed, developed, and calibrated to meet the requirements for structural vibration monitoring… | Wireless Sensor Network, Monitoring and CE | ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.www.researchgate.net

Senseable City Lab :.:: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
http://senseable.mit.edu/papers/pdf/20180327_Matarazzo-etal_Crowdsensing_ProceedingsIEEE.pdf

Crowdsensing Framework for Monitoring Bridge Vibrations Using Moving SmartphonesThis paper discusses new services that can be delivered to urban environments through big data generated by the public’s smartphones, enhancing the relationship between a city and its infrastructure.By Thomas J. maTarazzo, PaolosanTi, shamimn. Pakzad, krisToPher CarTer, CarloraTTi, BaBakmoaveni, Chrisosgood, andnigel JaCoB

Earthquake Sensors on Bridges

MIT senselab http://senseable.mit.edu/good_vibrations/

Good Vibrations – MIT Senseable City Lab 188,000,000. trips occurred each day in 2016 across a structurally deficient bridgesenseable.mit.edu

INSTRUMENTING THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE TO RECORD SEISMIC BEHAVIOR AND TO DEPLOY RAPID INSPECTION RESPONSE

INSTRUMENTING THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE TO RECORD SEISMIC BEHAVIOR AND TO DEPLOY RAPID INSPECTION RESPONSE 1311 1 Senior Principal, T. Y. Lin International, San Francisco California, 415 291 3700, cseim@tylin.com 2 Senior Principal, T. Y. Lin International, San Francisco California, 415 291 3700, cseim@tylin.com INSTRUMENTING THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE TO RECORD SEISMIC BEHAVIOR AND TO DEPLOY RAPID INSPECTION RESPONSE Charles SEIM1 And Mervin G GIACOMINI2 SUMMARY The Golden Gate Bridge opened to …www.iitk.ac.in

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228750028_Design_and_Implementation_of_Scalable_Wireless_Sensor_Network_for_Structural_Monitoring

(PDF) Design and Implementation of Scalable Wireless Sensor Network for Structural Monitoring – ResearchGateAn integrated hardware and software system for a scalable wireless sensor network WSN is designed and developed for structural health monitoring.www.researchgate.net

Structural Health Monitoring of the Golden Gate BridgeSukun Kim, Shamim Pakzad, David Culler, James Demmel, Gregory Fenves, Steven Glaser, and Martin Turon
http://sukunkim.com/research/ggb/


A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is designed, implemented, deployed and tested on the 4200ft long main span and the south tower of the Golden Gate Bridge (GGB). Ambient structural vibrations are reliably measured at a low cost and without interfering with the operation of the bridge. Requirements that SHM imposes on WSN are identified and new solutions to meet these requirements are proposed and implemented. In the GGB deployment, 64 nodes are distributed over the main span and the tower, collecting ambient vibrations synchronously at 1kHz rate, with less than 10us jitter, and with an accuracy of 30uG. The sampled data is collected reliably over a 46-hop network, with a bandwidth of 441B/s at the 46th hop. The collected data agrees with theoretical models and previous studies of the bridge. The deployment is the largest WSN for SHM.
* This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EIA-0122599 and by the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS).

http://sukunkim.com/research/ggb/Sentri.htm

Sentri – Structural Health Monitoring Toolkit

Last updated 30 November 2006
https://www.strongmotioncenter.org/cgi-bin/CESMD/stationhtml.pl?stationID=CE58700&network=CGS

CESMD
Information for Strong-Motion Station
San Francisco – Golden Gate Bridge
CGS – CSMIP Station 58700
Earthquakes recorded by this station
Latitude37.8198 N
Longitude122.4788 W
Elevation (m)
Site Geology 
Vs30 (m/sec) 
Site Class 
No. of Spans14. (1 Main span, 2 side spans, 6 spans at the North Viaduct, 5 spans at the South Viaduct).
Plan ShapeMostly straight with a curve at the South Viaduct.
Total Length9151′ (2789.2m). Main bridge spans are 1125′ (342.9m), 4200′ (1280.2m), and 1125′ (342.9m). North viaduct spans are approx. 200′ (61.0m) with a 347′ (105.8m) anchorage housing. South viaduct spans range from 71′ (21.6m) to 320′ (97.5m).
Width of Deck87.1′ (26.5m) to 90′ (27.4m).
Construction Date1937 (several upgrades since 1937).
Instrumentation1995. 69 accelerometers and 4 relative displacement sensors on the bridge, and a free-field station on the south side of the bridge.
Superstructure TypeMain span and side spans: suspended steel truss spans supported by braced steel towers. North and South Viaducts are mainly steel truss spans, with a steel arch span at the South Viaduct, supported by steel towers.
Substructure TypeSuspension spans: braced steel cellular shaft towers. 2 columns per tower. North and South Viaducts: braced steel towers and concrete pylons.
Foundation TypeReinforced concrete piers support the main span towers.
RemarksThe bridge was instrumented under the agreement between the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District and DOC.

SensorLand B&K Bill Fontana
https://www.sensorland.com/PRPages/BK199.html

Ambient Vibration Studies of Golden Gate Bridge: I. Suspended Structure

Ahmed M. Abdel‐Ghaffar and Robert H. Scanlan, Members, ASCE
https://ascelibrary.org/doi/10.1061/%28ASCE%290733-9399%281985%29111%3A4%28463%29

Ambient Vibration Studies of Golden Gate Bridge: I. Suspended Structure | Journal of Engineering Mechanics | Vol 111, No 4 – ASCE Library Extensive experimental investigations were conducted on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, to determine, using ambient vibration data, parameters of major interest in both wind and earthquake problems, such as effective damping, the three‐dimensional mode shapes, and the associated frequencies of the bridge vibration.ascelibrary.org


https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea/article/Hear-that-ghostly-hum-on-the-Golden-Gate-Bridge-15321948.php

Hear that ghostly hum on the Golden Gate Bridge? It’s here to stay – San Francisco Chronicle A ghostly, ear-rattling thrum emanating over the Golden Gate Bridge and throughout San Francisco’s Presidio neighborhood appears to be the result of high winds gusting through new slats on the …www.sfchronicle.com

Illinois Structural Health Monitoring
http://shm.cs.illinois.edu/Full%20scale%20applications.html

Structural Health Monitoring at the University of IllinoisAuthor Project Purpose Platform Sensor Node Energy Harvesting Nodes Accel. Strain Displ./ Crack Inclin. Wind Temp. Humid. Light CO2 Veloc. Total Sensing Channelsshm.cs.illinois.edu

Full-scale Applications

This webpage contains detailed information regarding full-scale applications of wireless sensors which can serve as a resource to the research and practitioner community. Reference papers/reports detailing the various deployments, URL for the deployments, pictures, and other information can be found here.

The detailed information regarding full-scale applications of wireless sensors is tabulated below: (click on author to access the paper, click on project to access the project URL)
http://senseable.mit.edu/papers/pdf/20170912_Matarazzo-etal_SmartphoneData_ProcediaEngineering.pdf

Smartphone data streams for bridge health monitoring2 Thomas Matarazzo et al. / Procedia Engineering 199 (2017) 966–971 967 Available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000senseable.mit.edu

Development and deployment of large scale wireless sensor network on a long-span bridge

  • Pakzad, Shamim N. (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University)
  • Received : 2009.10.30
  • Accepted : 2010.02.20
  • Published : 2010.07.25

https://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO201015541092757.page

Abstract

Testing and validation processes are critical tasks in developing a new hardware platform based on a new technology. This paper describes a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of a newly developed MEMS-based wireless sensor node as part of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The sensor node consists of a sensor board with four accelerometers, a thermometer and filtering and digitization units, and a MICAz mote for control, local computation and communication. The experiments include calibration and linearity tests for all sensor channels on the sensor boards, dynamic range tests to evaluate their performance when subjected to varying excitation, noise characteristic tests to quantify the noise floor of the sensor board, and temperature tests to study the behavior of the sensors under changing temperature profiles. The paper also describes a large-scale deployment of the WSN on a long-span suspension bridge, which lasted over three months and continuously collected ambient vibration and temperature data on the bridge. Statistical modal properties of a bridge tower are presented and compared with similar estimates from a previous deployment of sensors on the bridge and finite element models.

Keywords

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